Causal reasoning is the evidence used to establish a causal claim. To determine the effect of a cause we use causal reasoning. It shows the relationship between cause and effect of events (Shuttleworth, n.d.). To answer the WHY questions we and try to figure things out with causal reasoning. The cause and effects relationships gives meaning and understanding of the world we live in (Dryer, 2011). This reasoning is important to critical thinkers make many important decisions. The basis of decision making is the cause and effect relationship; they are reasoned actions and decisions are made based on the causal reasoning. Critical thinkers need to observe all angles of the question and possible outcomes before they decide on an answer. However, creating causalities can be difficult because the difference between groups, correlation between characteristics, and the post ho ergo propter hoc fallacy (Dryer, 2011). Its hard to really say what is the reason for something to happen because there is usually more than one factor, so the casual reasoning becomes more complex.While watching the NBC video clip on they state that the full moon has an effect on mankind in multiple ways. There are a lot of babies born, lunatics com out, and there are multiple crimes committed. This evidence did come from reliable professional sources who have experienced these events. But I do not believe the full moon is the only cause of all these occurrences I think there is way too much evidence missing and this is just a coincidence or superstition.
Causal reasoning aims to establish a link between causes and effects. When the reasoning is about causal claims, it is causal reasoning. According to the book, “although we recognize the importance of establishing causal relationship, it is also true that doing so is very difficult” (Dyer, 2011). Complex association with various causes and an effect, it is not easy to establish what causes exactly lead to a certain outcome. When we claim that one event causes another event, there may be other events that are also related to the second event. Because of the uncertainties and probabilities of among various events, it may be impossible to establish the exact reasons of why a certain event occurred. Most human judgments under uncertainty involve reasoning about causal relationships (Benjamin). Critical thinking is important in minimizing the error associated in making judgments. Establishing a link between causes and effects without proper judgments and evidence lead to wrong conclusions. Therefore, it is important to think critically and connect the cause and effect as accurate as possible. Also, it is important to identify correlation between two events which does not guarantee a cause effect relationship. Generalizations is also a weak strategy when establishing cause-and-effect link.
Attention grabbers and buffers are used regularly to engage a reader in a piece and are not necessarily unethical; rather they can be more so of a disappointment or annoying, at times. Readers/ listeners may be drawn to a story, message, or advertisement in hope of entertainment and it can turn out to be something not interesting at all. For example, I always get theses annoying phone calls that start off with telling me that I have won something free, like a sweepstakes or Walmart girt card. However, there is always a catch before I can receive the free prize, such as a survey or asking me to try out some type of product. These calls aren’t unethical or manipulative, fully, because they are obviously selling something and that’s the company’s way of attracting the listener’s attention. However, the fact that there are always some types of commitment before you can claim your prize is a bit manipulative.
What do you think? Are attention grabbers and buffers unethical and/or manipulative when used? Why?
Attention grabbers are completely ethical when used correctly. However, there are times where attention grabbers are so exaggerated that they do not give a truthful representation of the product or service they describe. For example, the KFC near me started to promote their $10 combo meal that feeds two people. The picture on the menu shows two entrées, two sides, and two drinks, but then you find out at the register that the drinks are sold separately. Exaggerating or false advertising is an unethical use of attention grabbers. Buffers are necessary when delivering very bad news or news that comes as a shock. For example, you should not tell a person that their family member or loved one has passed away using the direct approach. Really bad news like this needs the delicate touch of a buffer. People appreciate a sincere buffer. It shows that you care about the other person’s feelings. However, if you know your audience appreciates the direct approach then it is better to communicate according to your audience needs.