For each of the following questions provide a short answer (1-3 sentences).
1- On your way to a restaurant you notice a billboard advertising a local gym. There is a picture of a fit, young man and woman in workout clothes, laughing. To one side is the name of the gym, and on the other is the following sentence:”Who Says Working Out Can’t Be Fun?” which type of fallacy is this passage a slippery slope or bandwagon? Why?
2 – By the time you reach the restaurant, you are no longer feeling hungry because the billboard made you realize how out of shape you have become. As you try to figure out the best light beer to buy from the list, you remember that one advertises with the slogan, “The Ultimate Light Beer Experience,” and decide to give it a try. This slogan can be termed as “puffery.” Why?
3 – After dinner, you go home and flip through the mail. You find a direct mailing from a local car dealership advertising a 3.5% interest rate and $1500 rebate on the purchase of a new car. There is also a fine print statement at the bottom of the page that says, “Offer only good through Friday for buyers with a credit rating of 850 or better interested in buying a gray, 4-Door 2011 Chevy Impala.” What would you call this final disclaimer and why?
Read the following articles and answer questions 4, 5, and 6
1st article -The latest flare-up of violence off the Gaza coast has been months in the planning. Hamas, the Islamist movement that seized power in Gaza, does everything it can to bring in weapons and gunmen. Naturally there is an Israeli blockade. This time, Hamas got open Turkish backing to prepare and launch a flotilla of ships to enter Gaza. Hundreds of activists from all over the world, united only in hatred of Israel, were recruited to sail and provide civilian cover. Either the ships would dock, in which case the blockade would prove useless, or, more likely, there would be a confrontation, and Israel would be made to look bad. Either way, Hamas was sure to generate immense publicity, and that would be victory enough. As expected, Israeli commandos stormed the lead ship. Activists resisted, and nine or maybe ten people were killed.
2nd article- SPEAKING OUT ON ISRAEL: J Street, the pro-Israel, pro-peace lobby that seeks to get the US more seriously engaged in the Middle East peace process, was quick to decry the deadly attack by Israeli forces on an aid ship as the “shocking outcome of an effort to bring humanitarian relief to the people of Gaza.” As part of a broader plea for “immediate action” toward a “two-state resolution that protects Israel and frees the Palestinian people,” J Street called for an inquiry “to establish responsibility for the violence and bloodshed” and an “immediate end to the blockade of civilian and humanitarian items from entering Gaza, subject to inspection and screening to prevent the import of arms and weapons.” That’s a reasonable response. Unfortunately, it didn’t gain much traction in offi cial Washington, where The Hill described the reaction to the attack as “somewhat muted.” While President Obama and House Speaker Nancy Pelosi called for a “credible and transparent” investigation, they eschewed even mild criticism of the attack or the blockade. A number of Democrats joined Republicans in urging the US to “veto any biased UN resolutions” condemning Israel, while Senator John McCain criticized Obama for not backing Israel enough. On the other side, Congressman Dennis Kucinich circulated a letter to colleagues calling on the US to “remind Israel as well as all of our other friends and allies: It is not acceptable to repeatedly violate international law.” Arguably the most outspoken Democrat was outside Washington, however. California Congressional candidate Marcy Winograd, a co-founder of LA Jews for Peace, bluntly decried the attack that left at least nine people on the aid ship dead. Despite being locked in a tight primary race with Congresswoman Jane Harman, who has made unblinking support of Israel central to her appeal to the Los Angeles–area district’s many Jewish voters, Winograd pulled no punches: “Violence begets violence. Hatred begets hatred. Enough, we must stop this, and adhere to the laws that have been established by the international community…. As a Jewish woman of conscience, I invite my opponent, Jane Harman, another Jewish woman, and all of Congress to join me in denouncing this kind of barbaric violence, demanding an end to the blockade, and seeking an international investigation into these murders. I recommit myself to working towards a true, just and lasting peace.” JOHN NICHOLS
4 Having read both reports on the same event, what is the bias of each news source?
5 Focusing on the second article, what indicates to you that there is bias in this article?
6 -Focusing on the first article, what indicates to you that there is bias in this article?
7- For each of the following arguments, determine whether each is valid or invalid. If valid, determine whether it is deductive or inductive. If invalid, explain why.
My younger sister went to Mom and told that I pushed her into the door that cut her cheek. But it didn’t happen. I never pushed her. She must’ve just walked into the door on her own.
8- For each of the following arguments, determine whether each is valid or invalid. If valid, determine whether it is deductive or inductive. If invalid, explain why.
It is still my belief that it is safest to buy bottled water rather than drink from the tap. I’ve heard about the most recent studies, the ones that say that bottled water is no purer than regular tap water. Yes, I have read that chemicals in the plastic bottles can be leeched into the water if they sit too long. But really, how can something coming from the tap be as good? It just can’t be.
9- For each of the following arguments, determine whether each is valid or invalid. If valid, determine whether it is deductive or inductive. If invalid, explain why.
Whenever it rains at night, I can’t sleep. If I don’t sleep, my work suffers. If it rains at night, my work suffers.
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