Please answer all five short answer prompts, and two essay questions (one from section A/B, and one from section C/D). Your grade will be based on how thoroughly and analytically you argue an answer, and how well you use evidence from a broad array of theorists to support your claims. (Remember that this exam covers our readings and discussions on Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Burke and Wollstonecraft.) Your essays should be typed, double-spaced, and total no more than 12 pages. Answers must be submitted via Canvas no later than 5 pm on Friday, March 1st.
Short Answer (6 points each – please limit your answer to no more than 4 sentences each):
- Compare and contrast Aristotle’s view of the best type of political regime to Hobbes’ view.
- Compare and contrast Augustine’s view of the role/relationship of religion to politics, with Machiavelli’s view of the role of religion in politics.
- Compare and contrast Locke’s view of revolution/regime change to Burke’s.
- Compare and contrast Plato’s understanding of the relationship of virtue to politics, with Rousseau’s view.
- Compare and contrast Locke’s view of the purpose of politics to Aristotle’s view.
Essay One (must choose either A or B, 35 points):
- Western political theorists — from ancients like Plato and Aristotle to modern thinkers like Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau– have discussed the important role that private property plays with regard to political life. Is private property a harmful, or necessary, or beneficial motivation for political action? How should we properly think and act with regard to property in the polis?
- Does a good political system/community promote and protect equality? Why or why not? If so – how can it best do this?
Essay Two (choose either C or D, 35 points):
- What is tyranny, and how has it been understood over time to be dangerous or destructive to political life? How are its dangers to be avoided in political community? What should people look for in their leaders and regimes, and what should they resist?
- Machiavelli advised the Prince to “learn not to be good” in order to be successful. Is this necessary and/or sufficient for effective political leadership? Why or why not? Should rulers/politicians be held to a higher standard of morality and ethics than citizens?