1-Which one of the following would not be a valid contract made under seal?
a.A gratuitous written promise made under seal to donate $400 to the Red Cross
b.A signed formal deed under seal to transfer a house to a favourite nephew
c.A contract made under seal after commencing employment where an employee promised never to reveal the employer’s trade secrets to any competitor
d.A contract made under seal by a 17-year-old to buy a big screen TV entertainment system, with the agreement to pay $1200, the fair market price.
e.A written promise made under seal to paint a house for $400.
2-Your text discusses two famous cases regarding promissory estoppel. One case, called High Trees, is from the United Kingdom and the other, Gilbert Steel, is from Canada. In one case, the doctrine of promissory estoppel was used successfully but not in the other. Choose the correct reason why this occurred.
a.Gilbert Steel involved a landlord changing its mind to the detriment of the tenant, whereas High Trees was about the supplier of building materials. Services are treated differently in the doctrine of promissory estoppel.
b.High Trees is an English case and is not the law in Canada, whereas Gilbert Steel is from Ontario.
c.Promissory estoppel can be used as a defence to a lawsuit as occurred in High Trees, whereas there was an attempt in Gilbert Steel to use the doctrine by the plaintiff.
d.The court rejected the use of promissory estoppel in High Trees because the facts in that case occurred during wartime, whereas Gilbert Steel occurred during a time of peace.
e.Canada did not follow the English case of High Trees, and that is why the Canadian case of Gilbert Steel has a different result.