Module 02 Homework Assignment
· Use the information presented in the module folder along with your readings from the textbook to answer the following questions.
1. Describe four (4) important differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms:
· Prokaryotic cells lack a nucleus surrounded by a complex nuclear membrane and have a single circular chromosome located in a nucleoid whereas eukaryotic cells have a nucleus surrounded by a complex nuclear membrane that contains multiple, rod-shaped chromosomes.
· Prokaryotic cells are classified within the domains Archaea and Bacteria and eukaryotic cells are classified within the domain Eukarya.
· Eukaryotic cells are generally larger than prokaryotic cells.
· In eukaryotic cells, Lysosomes/peroxisomes, mitochondria, microtubules are present, whereas they are absent in prokaryotic cells.
2. Briefly describe the function of the following organelles:
a) Plasma membrane – control transport of molecules in and out of the cell.
b) Glycocalyx – allows cells to stick to surfaces, assisting in the formation of biofilms.
c) Cell wall – it covers the cell membrane, and protects the cells from changes in osmotic pressure.
d) Nucleus – controls all activities of the cell and plays a big part in reproduction and heredity.
e) Endoplasmic reticulum – serves as the fusion, folding, alteration and transport of proteins.
f) Golgi apparatus – processes and sorts proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum for transport to their destination.
g) Lysosomes – breaks down numerous particles. i.e. food, damaged organelles or cellular debris, microorganisms
h) Ribosomes – with high speed and accuracy, it synthesizes proteins
i) Peroxisomes – produces hydrogen peroxide and plays a role in lipid biosynthesis
j) Mitochondria – similar to a digestive system in which it takes nutrients, grinds them down, and makes molecules for the cell.
k) Chloroplasts – makes the sugars that then feeds the cells machinery.
3. What is a biofilm? Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of biofilms:
4. Briefly describe the process of aerobic cellular respiration. How does this process differ from anaerobic cellular respiration? How are these processes similar?
5. Briefly describe the difference between eukaryotic cell division and prokaryotic cell division. Be sure to include the name of the processes that each uses to replicate: